Lau HC, Lee IK, Ko PW, Lee HW, Huh JS, Cho WJ, Lim JO. Non-invasive screening for Alzheimer's disease by sensing salivary sugar using Drosophila cells expressing gustatory receptor (Gr5a) immobilized on an extended gate ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (EG-ISFET) biosensor. PLoS One. 2015 Feb 25;10(2):e0117810. PMID: 25714733; PMCID: PMC4340960.
From the abstract: "Body fluids are often used as specimens for medical diagnosis. With the
advent of advanced analytical techniques in biotechnology, the
diagnostic potential of saliva has been the focus of many studies. We
recently reported the presence of excess salivary sugars, in patients
with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we developed a
highly sensitive, cell-based biosensor to detect trehalose levels in
patient saliva. The developed biosensor relies on the overexpression of
sugar sensitive gustatory receptors (Gr5a) in Drosophila cells to detect
the salivary trehalose. ... "